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A FRAMEWORK FOR INFORMATION SECURITY ASSURANCE USING DNA CRYPTOGRAPHY

SREEJA , C S (2018) A FRAMEWORK FOR INFORMATION SECURITY ASSURANCE USING DNA CRYPTOGRAPHY. PhD thesis, Christ University.

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Abstract

Molecular biology is a branch of life science which plays a pivot role in improving the quality of life whereas Information security is another aspect for social edification, which human beings will never compromise. Both are subjects of high relevance and inevitable for humanity. Thus, an amalgamation of these subjects turns up as an innovation which is beneficial for Information security and storage. The secure transfer of information was of significant concern from ancient civilizations. Various techniques have been proposed from time immemorial to maintain the security of data so that only intended recipient should be able to receive the message other than the sender. The Information security aspects became prominent with the introduction of the Internet. Regardless of the type of information which varies from a single character to the much-discussed “Big Data”, it is necessary to ensure secure storage and protection which is a matter of concern. Cryptography is an art by itself and the science of secrecy which protects information from unauthorized access. Various techniques have evolved through years of information protection which includes Ciphers, Cryptography, Steganography, Biometrics and the most recent Nano-Cryptography comprising of Quantum Cryptography and DNA Cryptography. DNA cryptography is an emerging and promising field of Information security.Dr. Leonard Adleman’s experiment to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem, which is an NP-complete problem using computational properties of DNA, has redefined the word computing. The emergence of DNA computing marked the beginning of DNA Cryptography. It was a leap forward in the field of security to use biomolecular concepts and the later research followed on DNA encryption gives us new hope of unbreakable algorithms. DNA based encryption schemes work on the principles of DNA computing techniques. Cryptosystems based on DNA got relevance due to bio-computational properties of DNA. The encryption schemes based on DNA have several advantages and can be used with conventional cryptosystems as well as with Public Key Cryptography. The encryption schemes based on DNA can be performed in two ways, one is by using the biological medium of DNA for data hiding, and another method is by using digital sequences available from the genetic databases. DNA based symmetric encryption schemes mainly focuses on using the genetic material as One-Time-Pad (OTP), by considering the availability of sequences from the genetic databases and to avoid the requirement of key transmission. DNA based public key encryption schemes uses DNA sequence as a key. Steganographic systems based on DNA concentrated on using DNA as a medium for data hiding and retrieval. The massive parallelism and extraordinary storage capacity of DNA make it more acceptable for computation and as a data storage medium. The genetic material which is considered as magical code for life can serve other applications too. DNA computing has a wide variety of applications which includes but not limited to Data Storage, Anti-Counterfeiting and DNA Fingerprinting. By analyzing research gap drawn from literature work and focusing on the applications of DNA this research focuses on using DNA Cryptography to achieve the various Information security objectives such as Confidentiality, Integrity, Authentication, and Non-Repudiation as well as Anti-Counterfeiting. Addressing the Information security and counterfeiting issues has considerable applications in domains like Pharmaceutical, Health Care, etc. In these domains, drug counterfeiting and Information security are critical issues which if not properly addressed will lead to mortality and a negative impact on brand loyalty. This research work considered all the above mentioned aspects; this research work proposes a framework for Information security and Anti-Counterfeiting using DNA based encryption schemes. This research progresses through various phases and proposes architectures for Confidentiality, Integrity Authentication, AntiCounterfeiting, and Non-Repudiation using DNA cryptography. This research exploits DNA cryptography to achieve various Information security aspects. The proposed architecture has various phases. The first phase explains the proposed DNA based confidentiality and integrity schemes. Three schemes are proposed in this phase. One of the scheme is based on the principle of indexing the exons (coding region) and introns (non-coding region) of DNA sequences which also incorporates DNA coding and DNA steganography. The polymerase chain reaction technique is used as a principle concept in the second methodology to develop the encryption algorithm. The primer generation and Signature DNA method is also proposed. The third methodology in this phase addresses the man in the middle attack of Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol. This proposed methodology uses DNA based codebook and secret value calculations based on hash computations and DNA encryption. The second phase addresses the authentication concepts and three schemes are proposed. User authentication and product authentication techniques are proposed using DNA cryptography. The first scheme uses DNA cryptography, image steganography, image password and OTP based user authentication. Mathematically, the DNA bases Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine(C) and Thymine (T), a 4-letter alphabet Σ = {A, G, C, T} is used to encode information along with DNA coding rules and hash functions with proposed protocols. Another protocol for DNA based user authentication and architecture for Electronic Health Records (EHR) in conjunction with Aadhaar is proposed. The proposed authentication methodology has excellent applications in health care considering the emergence of personalized medicines and pharmacogenomics. The proposed health care also has e-prescription which addresses the issue of drug counterfeiting. The DNA based product authentication scheme is an AntiCounterfeiting technique. The synthetic engineering concepts and DNA encryption are used to develop the proposed protocol. The proposed synthetic DNA protocol generates a cipher which is unique and can be used as the product identifier for drugs. The cipher generated is converted to QR code to enable the end user to authenticate the product. The Non-Repudiation based on DNA-Hash is proposed in the third phase. Unlike other proposed protocols, this method uses DNA extraction protocol and suggests using real DNA for positive identification. This protocol generates e-Signature method using DNA-Hash which is based on Short Tandem Repeats (STR) which make each signature unique. It also uses a nonce value and hash computations. Proof of concept for each proposed methodology is also included in the research work. The security analysis is carried out theoretically for each proposed protocol. Probability computations are done to verify the primer attack, and complexity analysis is carried out for the encryption algorithm. Formal analysis of the proposed protocols is done using Scyther tool to validate the security claims. The verification results produced by Scyther validates the claims put forth by the protocols with “no attacks.”

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Subjects:Thesis
Thesis > Ph.D
Thesis > Ph.D > Computer Science
ID Code:7789
Deposited By:Shaiju M C
Deposited On:11 May 2019 15:48
Last Modified:11 May 2019 15:48

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