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Study of Nanolayered Structure of Commercially Available Carbon Materials and Soot

.N.Mohan, Anu (2012) Study of Nanolayered Structure of Commercially Available Carbon Materials and Soot. Other thesis, Christ University.

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Abstract

Developments in the modern world periodically call for the discovery or invention of new and exotic materials. In the present situation, to develop unique and novel materials, which move beyond the barriers of the physical limits of the amount of micro- miniaturization possible as well as the current technology and take advantage of the opportunities not yet imagined, is not at all a need but a necessity. The advent of Nano technology of carbon allotropes is a giant leap towards this goal. The starting of the era of carbon nanomaterials traces back to 1985 when the fullerenes with a foot ball structure were accidently discovered. From then on, the field of carbon nanotechnology was in the constant limelight on account of the amazing properties displayed by the various allotropes of carbon. These properties are dependent mainly on the type of hybridization present in the nanostructures, which categorizes them to amorphous or crystalline. Also, there exist some structures which are the combination of these two and are termed as nanocrystalline or turbostratic structures. The discovery of graphene, which has a turbostratic structure and is the thinnest material known and the strongest ever measured, with outstanding properties such as highest room temperature electrical conductivity; high mechanical robustness etc was a ground breaking one. These remarkable properties open up a wide range of potential applications ranging from clean energy to nano-electronics to bio-medical devices. Thus, it is a necessity to explore and characterize various effective sources of these nanomaterials. The present study is an attempt to investigate such efficient, easily available and cost-effective precursors. Soot, also known as black carbon, is a fine-grained solid residue that results from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons and is a widely used precursor for the production of carbon nanomaterials. Carbon soot is a major component of smoke from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels and hydrocarbons and hence has a vast number of sources. In the study presented here soot obtained from the thermal decomposition of commercially available kerosene, diesel oil, paraffin wax and lubricant oil is investigated. Nanostructure of the commercially available carbon black is also studied. Various techniques such as Micro Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM), Electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental analysis are employed for the structural and morphological characterization of the samples. Raman scattering is used as a probe to study the disorder in the carbon skeleton materials. The intensity ratio of the D and G modes occurring in the spectra is proportional to the number of rings at the edge of the grain and also indicates the quality of the sample. FT-IR spectroscopy is used to characterize qualitatively the functional groups of carbon materials. XRD is the most common analytical technique used for determining the structure of ordered and disordered carbons from the positions of the diffraction peaks at 2? angle. The structural parameters like the size of the ordered grains along c and a axis (Lc and La), the average spacing of the crystallographic (002) planes (d002) can be determined through Scherrer equations. SEM micrographs give the surface morphology of the nanomaterials present and the EDS analysis gives the abundance of the microscopic constituents. Elemental composition of the samples can be derived from the elemental analysis using CHNS (Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulphur) analyser. The present study shows that all the samples investigated obeys the Tuinstra-Koening relation and posses a nanocrystalline structure. The ratio of the defect and graphite bands is found to be very low, especially in the case of diesel soot which has a value very much lower than those reported in the earlier studies, indicating high quality and a low amount of disorder in the samples. HR-SEM micrographs clearly indicate that the carbon nanostructured present in the samples are in the form of non-uniform nanospheres with diameter varying between 26-100 nm. The characteristic diffraction peak of graphene corresponding to (100) diffraction is observed in the x-ray diffraction profiles of all the samples. The interlayer spacing determined in all the samples lies very close to that of graphite. The H/C atomic ratio from the CHNS analysis is found to be very low and confirms the nanocrystalline structure of the materials. The graphite band position in the IR spectra indicates that the nanospheres formed are to be composed more of crystalline graphitic carbon. From the EDS analysis it is evident that all the samples have very high carbon content and are free from impurities and thus concludes that the materials and methods used in the present study for the synthesis of carbon nanospheres possessing a nanocrystalline structure are efficient and cost effective and are good precursors for graphene.

Item Type:Thesis (Other)
Subjects:Thesis > MPhil > Physics
Divisions:M Phil > Physics
ID Code:4883
Deposited By:Knowledge Center Christ University
Deposited On:10 Oct 2013 20:03
Last Modified:10 Oct 2013 20:03

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